Nov 05

According to Wikipedia, the Frisian people are characterized by the R1b subclade U106 DNA profile:

Dutch Provinces

“Based on Y-DNA studies, it is believed the Frisian Y-DNA Haplogroup to be from the Haplogroup U106/S21 and its downstream subclades. Reference Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA). U106 is defined as R1b1b2a1a by Family Tree DNA. U106 subclades include R1a1b1b2a1a1, R1a1b1b2a1a2, R1a1b1b2a1a3, and R1a1b1b2a1a4.”

Further, the page on Haplogroup R1b indicates the following genetic origin of this group:

“R1b’s frequency is highest in the populations of Atlantic Europe and, due to European emigration, in North America, South America, and Australia. In Ireland and the Basque Country its frequency exceeds 90% and approaches 100% in Western Ireland.[4] The incidence of R1b is 70% or more in parts of northern and western England, northern Spain, northern Portugal, western France, Wales, Scotland. R1b’s incidence declines gradually with distance from these areas but it is still common across the central areas of Europe. R1b is the most frequent haplogroup in Germany, and is common in southern Scandinavia and in Italy.”

Being a Fonda, I had my DNA tested and I am in Haplogroup I1, which has the following description:

Haplogroup I

“Haplogroup I1 is a Y chromosome haplogroup occurring at greatest frequency in Scandinavia, associated with the mutations identified as M253, M307, P30, and P40. These are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It is a subclade of Haplogroup I. Before a reclassification in 2008,[1] the group was known as Haplogroup I1a.[2] Some individuals and organizations continue to use the I1a designation.”

“The group displays a very clear frequency gradient, with a peak of approximately 40 percent among the populations of western Finland and more than 50 percent in the province of Satakunta,[3] around 35 percent in southern Norway, southwestern Sweden especially on the island of Gotland, and Denmark, with rapidly decreasing frequencies toward the edges of the historically Germanic sphere of influence.”

“I1 Anglo-Saxon (I1-AS) has its peak gradient in the Germanic lowland countries: northern Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, as well as England and old Norman regions of France.”

I assume that all the Fonda’s descended from Jellis Douw Fonda would also be Haplogroup I1 (unless my parents didn’t tell me something… lol).  If you would like to get tested, go to the Fonda DNA Group on and order the Paternal Lineage (Y-46) test.  This test is only valid for males.  I do not know if you must be a member of to join the DNA project.  If there are other DNA comparison groups which are available I would be glad to transfer my results for comparison.  I believe that shares its data with other DNA databases.  Note: I have now entered my data on Y-Search, which is free access.

So far, we only have three Y-46 tests.  The other two are from a Slovenian Fonda and an Italian Fondi who are both R1b’s.

Some further interesting commentary:

“In the book Blood of the Isles, published in North America as Saxons, Vikings & Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland, author Bryan Sykes gave the name of the Nordic deity Wodan to represent the clan patriarch of I1, as he did for mitochondrial haplogroups in a previous book, The Seven Daughters of Eve. Every male identified as I1 is a descendant of this man.”

“Another writer, Stephen Oppenheimer, discussed I1 in his book The Origins of the British. Although somewhat controversial, Oppenheimer, unlike Sykes, argued that Anglo-Saxons did not have much impact on the genetic makeup of the British Isles. Instead he theorized that the vast majority of British ancestry originated in a paleolithic Iberian people, traced to modern-day Basque populations, represented by the predominance of Haplogroup R1b in the United Kingdom today.[44] A similar, more broad-based argument was made by Ellen Levy-Coffman in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy.[45] The book When Scotland Was Jewish is another example. These are direct challenges to previous studies led by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Siiri Rootsi and others.[46] Cavalli-Sforza has studied the connections between migration patterns and blood groups. There has been some discussion of this on a mailing list at RootsWeb.[47]”

Useful links:
Y-Search (A Free Public Service from Family Tree DNA)
Family Tree DNA – Genetic testing to answer your genealogy questions
Whit Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor
Eupedia: Geographic spread and ethnic origins of European haplogroups

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